Monday, December 17, 2018

The Great O Antiphons, The Golden Nights

Ever since our oldest children were very little, we have been implementing an old monastic custom in our home by providing special treats, representing each of the "O Antiphons" on the days leading up to Christmas. The O Antiphon prayers begin on December 17th and end on the 23rd, which is the last Vespers of Advent, since the evening prayer on the 24th is the Vigil of Christmas.
The Benedictine monks arranged these antiphons with a definite purpose. If one starts with the last title and takes the first letter of each one - Emmanuel, Rex, Oriens, Clavis, Radix, Adonai, Sapientia - the Latin words ero cras are formed, meaning, “Tomorrow, I will come.” Therefore, the Lord Jesus, whose coming we have prepared for in Advent and whom we have addressed in these seven Messianic titles, now speaks to us, “Tomorrow, I will come.” So the “O Antiphons” not only bring intensity to our Advent preparation, but bring it to a joyful conclusion.
Each night, following our family rosary, we pray the O Antiphon for the day, sing O Come, O Come, Emmanuel, which was inspired by this ancient tradition, and then give the children a special treat.

Advent Hymns from We Sing and Chant

The "treats" have varied from year to year. Some years it has been little gifts or activities for the family, some years it is all food related, and some years it is a mix of both, depending on our schedule and budget. It doesn't need to cost much or even anything at all! Be creative!

Sometimes the treats are a bit of a stretch, but my goal is try and find gifts that will either help increase our faith (Catechism books, holy family, saints, prayer, etc) or encourage family time (games, puzzles, going to look at Christmas lights, etc). You can find some of our past O Antiphon treats by scrolling through the archives and visiting Catholic Cuisine.

Our family loves this tradition. It is such a fun way to teach the children about these beautiful prayers of the church and also increase their excitement as Christmas gets closer.

Below I've listed the treats I choose for this year, as well as additional ideas (food, activities and gifts - or simply decorate chocolate coins) for each of the O Antiphons.

Once again I am hosting an O ANTIPHON GIVEAWAY! One lucky visitor here at Shower of Roses will receive a gift package including seven Cookie Stamps, one to represent each of the seven O Antiphons! Be sure to scroll to the bottom of this post for the details and to enter.

.: December 17th :.
O Wisdom that comest out of the mouth of the Most High, that reachest from one end to another, and orderest all things mightily and sweetly, come to teach us the way of prudence!

O Sapientia (O Wisdom) - SaintCards + Holy Helpers & Doctors of the Church

Since the symbol for wisdom is a book, I usually choose a new Catholic book for our family. Last year it was two books in The Wonder Series: The Wonder Story and The Wonder Days. The year before it was An Alphabet of the Altar which had just been reprinted by St. Augustine Academy Press. This year I'll be giving them SaintCards + Holy Helpers & Doctors of the Church. I think we'll all enjoy playing this and learning more about the saints!

Additional Ideas: 

.: December 18th :.
O Adonai, and Ruler of the house of Israel, Who didst appear unto Moses in the burning bush, and gavest him the law in Sinai, come to redeem us with an outstretched arm!

O Adonai (O Lord) - Gingerbread House Kit from Trader Joe's

In the past we would emphasize the word "house" in this Antiphon, and have made our Gingerbread Houses or Gingerbread Cookies on this night.  Now that we have two birthdays this week (and two birthday cakes to bake and decorate!) we usually wait until Christmas Eve, or sometime during the 12 Days of Christmas to decorated Gingerbread Houses but I'm hoping we can fit it in this year!

Additional Ideas: 

.: December 19th :.
O Root of Jesse, which standest for an ensign of the people, at Whom the kings shall shut their mouths, Whom the Gentiles shall seek, come to deliver us, do not tarry.

O Radix Jesse (O Root of Jesse) - 2018 Family Ornament to add to the Christmas Tree

Additional Ideas:

From Jesse, the shepherd, to Jesus, the Good Shepherd... Shepherds tie in nicely this year!

This year, in addition to the new family ornament, our children will be unwrapping this cute Shepherd and Angel playlet from Shining Light Dolls. 

.: December 20th :.
O Key of David, and Sceptre of the house of Israel, that openeth and no man shutteth, and shutteth and no man openeth, come to liberate the prisoner from the prison, and them that sit in darkness, and in the shadow of death.

O Clavis David (O Key of David) - Fishing for Bible Characters

We'll have another family game night, along with some sparkling drinks!

Additional Ideas:

.: December 21st :.
O Dayspring, Brightness of the everlasting light, Son of justice, come to give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death!

Christmas Morning 2017
O Oriens (O Dayspring) - New Christmas Pajamas

I decided to go a different direction all together this year... I'm going to surprise the kids with their Christmas Eve pajamas a few days early. I've found that there is just too much going on Christmas Eve (especially since we love to attend the midnight mass) to wait until then. Last year I gave them to them all on the feast of St. Nicholas, but this year I didn't have them all in time. I think they will be perfect to go along with this O Antiphon. We'll also try and go out to see Christmas lights, as usual, weather permitting.

Additional Ideas:

.: December 22nd :.
O King of the Gentiles, yea, and desire thereof! O Corner-stone, that makest of two one, come to save man, whom Thou hast made out of the dust of the earth!

O Rex Gentium (O King of the Gentiles) - Three Kings Playset from Shining Light Dolls

Additional Ideas:

.: December 23rd :.
O Emmanuel, our King and our Law-giver, Longing of the Gentiles, yea, and salvation thereof, come to save us, O Lord our God!

O Emmanuel (O With Us is God) - The Holy Family Nativity Playset from Shining Light Dolls

Some year's I've given our children a new nativity set on this day... This year I'm splitting it up, giving them the shepherd/angel one night, the three kings another, and finishing it with Mary & Joseph. I love that it comes with two Mary dolls - one expecting and one holding Baby Jesus!


Here are the cookie stamps I picked out to go along with each of the O Antiphons.
The winner will recieve one of each!

Wisdom: #460 – Triune God
House: #214 – Home Sweet Home
Root of Jesse: #520 – Willow Tree
Key of David: #543 – Key to My Heart
Dayspring: #291 – Moravian Star
King: #448 – Norwegian Wedding Crown
Emmanuel: #368 – Nativity

Sponsored by Rycraft Cookie Stamps
(7 cookie stamps with recipe booklet @ $12.99 ea = $90.93 value)

Enter the Giveaway using the Rafflecopter Box below: 

a Rafflecopter giveaway

If you are looking for gift ideas, you can find my lists of Christmas Gift Ideas & Stocking Stuffers here (2015)here (2016)here (2017), and here (2018).  

Friday, December 14, 2018

Stamped Shortbread Cookies (AIP, Paleo, Vegan)

My girls made sure I had treats for the feasts of St. Nick and St. Lucy too. It IS possible to make gluten-free, grain-free, egg-free, dairy-free, sugar-free shortbread cookies! This is the second year they have made them for me and they are such a nice little treat along with a cup of tea. 

Stamped Shortbread Cookies
(Paleo, AIP, Vegan)

  • ½ c Coconut Flour
  • 2 tbsp. Arrowroot Flour
  • Pinch of Sea Salt
  • ½ c melted Palm Shortening
  • 2 tbsp. Maple Syrup
  • ½ tsp alcohol-free Vanilla Extract
  • 4 tbsp. Water

  1. Set oven to 325 degrees.
  2. In a medium bowl sift together the coconut flour, arrowroot flour, and pinch of salt.
  3. Make a well in the center and add the melted palm oil, maple syrup, and vanilla. Stir thoroughly. Add the water and continue to stir until you have a nice dough. The mixture will continue to thicken after the water is added. 
  4. Roll into one-inch balls, and place on uncreased cookie sheet. 
  5. Stamp with cookie stamp. (Tips for using stamps can be found here.)
  6. Bake at 325 for 15 minutes, until lightly golden on edges. 
  7. Allow the cookies to cool for 10-15 minutes before removing from the baking sheet. 
  8. Enjoy! 

We have quite a few Rycraft Cookie Stamps including the cookie stamps featured in this post:

If you have a favorite AIP cookie recipe, please share! 

Monday, November 26, 2018

2018 Christmas Gift Ideas & Stocking Stuffers {Plus Another Sleighful of Giveaways}

It's time for this year's list of "Christmas Gift Ideas" and another "Sleighful of Giveaways" from my amazing and generous sponsors! Despite our big move last month, I somehow managed to pull it together at the last minute with some help from my children!! Now I need to get back to unpacking and find the rest of our Advent boxes... We are all looking forward to Advent and Christmas in our new home and parish!

You can find the lists from the last three years here, here and here, as well as even more Catholic gift ideas listed in my past Easter posts as well: 100+ Easter Basket Stuffers & Catholic Gift Ideas and Easter Symbols: Catholic Gift Ideas. Some of the items below have been featured in the past but they are still favorites.

Be sure to scroll all the way to the bottom to enter the giveaway for a chance to win one of 25 PRIZES, from my generous sponsors here at Shower of Roses, with a combined value of over $1,800! Please keep these Catholic businesses in mind when shopping for gifts this Christmas season! 

Note: As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
.: Fun New Finds for Advent and Christmas 2018 :.

  1. Drinking with St. Nick: Christmas Cocktails for Sinners and Saints from the author of Drinking with the Saints: The Sinner's Guide to a Holy Happy Hour - I don't drink but I enjoy reading these books! 
  2. The Holy Family Nativity Play Set from Shining Light Dolls - Love the expecting Blessed Mother! Perfect for Advent!
  3. Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Graphic Novel - Also available directly from TAN. 
  4. LEGO Advent Wreath - My boys have all the LEGO they would need to make this on their own, but fun idea! 
  5. Around the Year with the Von Trapp Family - I have a treasured vintage out of print copy of this book and am so happy to see it back in print! I pre-ordered a copy of it to give my oldest daughter back in September... but I forgot to change the shipping address and it's sitting on my porch back in Oregon. 
  6. My Jesse Tree Sticker Set - This looks fun! 
  7. Celebrating a Merry Catholic Christmas: A Guide to the Customs and Feast Days of Advent and Christmas - Haven't seen this in person yet but it looks great! 
  8. Nativity Tea Light Candle Lantern - I bought this last Christmas but I don't think I ever shared it here on the blog. 
  9. The Bible Story from St. Augustine Academy Press (Also available on Amazon here) - This would make an excellent addition to the Jesse Tree. 

.: Some Favorite Advent and Christmas Music :. 

** Some of these have unlimited free streaming included with Prime on Amazon! **
  1. Advent at Ephesus
  2. Adventus 
  3. Legends of St. Nicholas
  4. Caroling at Ephesus
  5. Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring: Christmas with The Dominican Sisters of Mary
  6. Catholic Songs for Children - includes: Gather Round the Crib at Christmas and The Best Christmas Present of All

.: Favorites for the Feast of St. Nicholas :. 

  1. St. Nicholas with Moveable Arms from Ostheimer - Plus Free Printable St. Nicholas gift Tags in the archives! You can find him from Bella Luna and The Wooden WagonThis is another version.  
  2. Saint Nicholas Cookie Stamp from Rycraft
  3. St. Nicholas and the Nine Gold Coins - Review can be found here. Plus decorate your own St. Nicholas Chocolate Coins with this free printable. 
  4. TruSweets Organic Candy Canes - One of our children is allergic to Red 40. Love that theses are made without food coloring! I bought a couple boxes from Thrive last year. If you don't have a Thrive membership, here's my referral link to save you 20%. You can also find them at Natural Grocers. 
  5. The Bakers Dozen - and recipe for cookies in the archives! Unlike the candy canes, these were unfortunately not Red 40 free... 
  6. St. Nicholas Shining Light Doll - picture from our snowy 2013 celebration!
  7. St. Nicholas Statue
  8. St. Nicholas Block from Almond Rod Toys
  9. The Miracle of St. Nicholas

.: Favorites for the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe :.

  1. Mañanitas CD or MP3 from Casa Maria/Sister Servants
  2. Our Lady of Guadalupe and Our Lady of Guadalupe Pop-Up Book - More pictures can be found here
  3. Our Lady of Guadalupe from Prayer Pillowcases
  4. Cloak of Roses - Our Lady of Guadalupe from Regina Martryum Productions
  5. Our Lady of Guadalupe and Crown from The Little Habit - You can enter to win this below! 
  6. The Story of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Empress of the Americas
  7. Juan Diego: Messenger of Guadalupe DVD
  8. Our Lady of Guadalupe from Almond Rod Toys
  9. Our Lady of Guadalupe from Shining Light Dolls
We also love the Our Lady of Guadalupe Puzzle, if you can find it, 
and we usually celebrate with an Our Lady of Guadalupe Brunch or Dinner!

.: Favorites for Santa Lucia Day :.

  1. Santa Lucia Girl from Armadillo Dreams
  2. Baby Lucia Crown and Attendants Candle 
  3. Lucia Morning in Sweden
  4. St. Lucia 8x10 Print from Sleightholm Folk Art
  5. Lucia Crown for Real Candles
  6. Lucia Mug with Song - Such a cute mug! It's no longer available from where I purchased it, but I just found it online here
  7. Saint Lucia Dress & Wreath from The Little Habit (also pictured are the discontinued American Girl doll outfits and accessories as well. I found them on eBay years ago.) 
  8. Lucia Cookie Stamp from Rycraft
  9. NEW this year: Saint Lucy from Shining Light Dolls 
I couldn't fit everything above! Here are some more great items to check out:
  1. Lucia Saint of Light
  2. St. Lucy from Naturally Catholic
  3. Saint Lucy from Tiny Saints
  4. Starboy Hat and Star Set
  5. Saint Lucy Articulated Paper Doll in Color from Stella Marigold Art

.: Favorite Advent and Christmas Puzzles :.

Our family loves putting together puzzles during Advent and Christmas. 
Here are some past favorites that are still available to purchase: 
  1. The Invitation (Noah's Ark - perfect for with Jesse Tree) - more pictures in the archives
  2. All Will Adore Him Jigsaw Puzzle - similar to this one in the archives
  3. Glorious Nativity Jigsaw Puzzle  - more pictures in the archives
  4. Stained Glass Holy Night Jigsaw Puzzle 
  5. Forest Nativity Shaped Jigsaw Puzzle 
  6. Holy Family Jigsaw Puzzle 
  7. Heaven on Earth Jigsaw Puzzle 
  8. Stained Glass Nativity Jigsaw Puzzle 
  9. Midnight Mass

.: Favorite Nativity Sets :.

These are some of the nativity sets our family has collected over the years.
  1. Kurt Adler Wooden Nativity Advent Calendar with 24 Magnetic Figures
  2. Playmobil Nativity (we have an older style)
  3. Nativity Fabric Advent Calendar
  4. Mary on Donkey and Joseph Walking
  5. Wooden 5-Piece Nativity scene Puzzle
  6. Ostheimer MINI Nativity - I purchased some of the pieces during a sale last year and plan to add a few more to our collection this year. 
  7. Childrens Nativity Blocks Starter Set and Deluxe Wooden Nativity Set from Almond Rod Toy
  8. Ostheimer Nativity Set Full Size - This was a gift last year and I look forward to adding to the collection one or two pieces at a time. Available from Bella Luna
  9. A Child Is BornThree Kings, and Shepherds and Sheep from Naturally Catholic

Brand new Nativity Set from Shining Light Dolls - I think this will become a favorite too! 

As I mentioned above, our children helped again with this year's "Christmas Gift Ideas" post. I had them each list nine gift ideas for me to share with you all. Here are their answers:

Please note: In addition to their stockings, our children usually unwrap three gifts from my husband and I on Christmas morning - something they need, something they want, and one other gift which is usually faith based. We draw names on the first Sunday of Advent for Christkindl and end with a family Christkindl gift exchange. It's always the first thing they want to do after our morning prayers (or morning Mass if we didn't make it to the Midnight Mass) on Christmas Day! They also receive a stack of books either on Christmas or Epiphany. The gifts listed below have been received over a number of different years/occasions.

.: Captain's Picks - Age 18 :.

  1. The Shadow of His Wings: The True Story of Fr. Gereon Goldmann, OFM - Still a favorite.
  2. Gift Cards - Like food/snacks, gift cards are always a great gift for teens. 
  3. St. Maximilian Kolbe Quote Mug
  4. T-Shirts (He got this Prancing Pony T-Shirt in his Easter Basket this year.)  
  5. Liturgy of the Hours
  6. Fun Ties: He loves his Star Wars Line Drawing Tie and Irish Flag Tie
  7. Star Wars Catch Phrase - Played at friend's home. Very fun! 
  8. MacBook with Captain America Shield Decal
  9. Chips and Playing Cards Poker - Hearth And Hand

.: Ranger's Picks - Age 16 :.

  1. Wish List: LEGO Creator Expert Downtown Diner - The Detective's Office is definitely his favorite out of all the Modular sets, but this one is at the top of his wishlist. He also loves Architecture and Creator sets. 
  2. Spikeball - We don't own this the boys had a blast playing it with their soccer team in Oregon! My mom let me know that she is planning on giving it to them this year! shhhh! 
  3. 7 Wonders - A bit of a learning curve to play, but fun! 
  4. Video Drone AP - This gift from Uncle Brian and Aunt Meagan last Christmas was a hit!
  5. Ranger's Apprentice Books and The Brotherband Chronicles (Always a suggestion from one of my boys... He'll be receiving the brand new release of The Red Fox Clan. Shhhh!) 
  6. Sushi Go! - The Pick and Pass Card Game
  7. Wish List: MacBook (Our oldest son received one for his 18th birthday last summer. Our 16 year old is a senior this year too and we'll most likely get him one for his 17th birthday or as a graduation gift. Can't believe they will both be headed to college next year!) 
  8. North Face Men's Inlux Insulated Jacket - found this on clearance last year and it's now his favorite. Basically clothing is always a hit with my teens! 
  9. Taylor Made Spider Putter  - He saved up and bought this putter for himself last golf season. 

.: Twinkle Toes' Picks - Age 15 :.

  1. Emily Books: Emily of New Moon, Emily Climbs, and Emily's Quest
  2. St. Joan of Arc T-Shirt from Catholic T-Shirt Club - The boys enjoyed this subscription for awhile and then I changed it to a size S subscription for the girls to build up their collection of Catholic T-Shirts. Such a fun club! 
  3. Floral Coffee Mug
  4. Little Secrets All Natural Chocolate Candy
  5. Montana Emu Ranch Lip Balm - Finally something that works!
  6. Wish List: When Calls the Heart Christmas Special and Complete Season 5 - She already has and loves When Calls the Heart Year 4 DVDs (She has the Collector's Editions of Season 1Season 2Season 3, and Season 4
  7. Coach Satchel - Watch for sales on this... I paid less than $100. 
  8. Long Sleeve Floral Casual Swing Pleated T-Shirt Dress with Pockets 
  9. Custom Book Blanket from Sweet Sequels with all of her favorites!

.: Chiquita's Picks - Age 13 :.

  1. St. Philomena Outfit for 18" Doll from The Little Habit
  2. The Green Ember Books
  3. Into the Wardrobe Book Blanket from Sweet Sequels
  4. Wingspan Optics Spectator 8X32 Compact Binoculars for Bird Watching
  5. Hand-embroidered Scapular from StellaMarigoldArt - She and her sister received these years ago and after wearing them daily (including camping/swimming in them during the summer) they are starting to wear out. 
  6. Kipling Sebastian Crossbody Bag 
  7. Lisieux Nail Polish
  8. Kindle Paperwhite with Leather Case and Vera Bradley E-Reader Sleeve in Northern Lights to match her Backpack (great sales directly from Vera Bradley
  9. St. Clare of Assisi Quote Mug (from this year's Easter Basket) 

.: Snuggles' Picks - Age 11 :.

  1. Mines of Moria: We Dwarf the Competition T-Shirt (to go along with his favorite book: The Hobbit: Illustrated Edition)
  2. The Wingfeather Saga: On the Edge of the Dark Sea of Darkness, North! Or Be Eaten, The Monster in the Hollows, The Warden and the Wolf King 
  3. Sting Sword 
  4. Snap Circuits Extreme (All the Snap Circuits sets are great!) 
  5. Custom Hobbit/Lord of the Rings Book Blanket from Sweet Sequels
  6. LEGO Creator Sets and City Sets (On his last birthday he loved the LEGO Pickup and Caravan from Grandpa and Grandma.)
  7. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Game
  8. Singtrix Party Bundle Karaoke System
  9. Flag Football (I am not sure what set my husband picked out from Dick's last Christmas, but the Flag Football has been a hit with all the kids this past year.) 

.: Rose's Picks - Age 8 :.

  1. St. Joan of Arc Paper Dolls - available from Sacred Heart Books and Gifts
  2. Lunch Basket with Liner from Bella Luna Toys 
  3. Ostheimer Goose Girl with Geese - I purchased them from The Wooden Wagon
  4. Jellycat Twinkle Bunny
  5. Little House on the Prairie Audio CDs
  6. Adventures of Nathaniel B. Oakes and Never Squeeze a Honeybee! The Continuing Adventure of Nathaniel B. Oakes
  7. Little Women Blanket from Sweet Sequels 
  8. Calico CrittersThese have been favorites for many years and are always on the list of favorites for all the girls. She loves her Kangaroo family
  9. Pride and Prejudice Seek and Find

.: Bud's Picks - Age 6 :.

In addition to our collection of Lincoln Logs, Playmobil, Thomas Wooden Railway, and LEGO, here are some more favorite toys that Bud loves and I would buy again... He still LOVES his Red Fox too!
  1. "I want a Hippopotamus for Christmas..." - Last Christmas he got a Hippopotamus and this year the Baby Hippo is at the top of his wish list. Ostheimer Noah's Ark, Figures, and Animals have been past gifts and they are played with daily. I plan to add the Baby Hippo to his collection this year and maybe a few others. Like all handcrafted wooden toys, these are an investment, but they are so beautiful and definitely heirloom quality. I always watch for sales from Bella Luna Toys and The Wooden Wagon
  2. Franklin Sports NHL Mini Hockey Goal Set of 2
  3. Fagus Tipper Truck (Available Fagus Toys from Amazon and The Wooden Wagon)
  4. Interlocking Wooden Blocks from Nova Natural ... "Can I play with these now?! You can make all sorts of stuff with them!" 
  5. The Biggest Bear ... "It's awesome." 
  6. Cash Register from Nova Natural ... "It dings and it has real paper!" 
  7. Red Fox - This one was on last year's list, but he still loves his Wild Republic Red Fox from his godparents. All of the Wild Republic stuffed animals are great. 
  8. St. Thomas Becket Soft Linen Doll - I bought this last year and forgot to give it to him. It will be one of his gifts this year. 
  9. Sequence for Kids ... "Most of the games we play are boring.... but this one IS NOT!" 

.: Grace's Picks - Age 1 :.

  1. Extra Large 12-Piece Rainbow Tunnel
  2. Hape Mr. Tambourine Kid's Wooden Instrument 
  3. Ostheimer Wooden Animals - She loves these too and will often be seen carrying around the Mama and Baby Giraffes. They are her favorite. 
  4. 100% Pro-Life Onesie and Jellycat Stuffed Animals - She has this Bashful Bunny in Tulip Pink and Cream, Lamb, Black and White Cat, and Fuddlewuddle Monkey
  5. Baby Baby Signing Time
  6. All Natural Tnee's Tee from her Wild One Birthday - Available direct on their website
  7. Idaho State Wooden Baby Rattle from Bannor Toys - I got her the Oregon Rattle last year (with Black and Orange Beads - Go Beavs!) and now we need to get her the Idaho Rattle too! 
  8. Shining Light Dolls
  9. Hydro Flask Sippy
  10. She still loves her Rosary from Chews Life too! 

.: A Few of My Favorite Things :.
.: 2019 Catholic Calendars and Planners :.

  1. 2019 Traditional Latin Mass Calendar from FSSP (Extraordinary Form) 
  2. 2019 Catholic Calendar from Saints Galore (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form) 
  3. 2019 A Nun's Life Wall Calendar from TAN (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form)
  4. 2019 Saints Calendar and 16 Month Daily Planner from TAN (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form -My husband and I both use this every year!)
  5. The Catholic Daily Planner™ from Michele Quigley (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form)
  6. Blessed Is She 2019 Calendar YEARLY Planner (Ordinary Form)
  7. 2019 The Life of Our Lord Wall Calendar from TAN (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form)
  8. 2019 Defending Christendom Wall Calendar from TAN (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form)
  9. 2019 Mary and the Saints Wall Calendar from TAN (Ordinary Form + Extraordinary Form)